Common Conditions

List of Common Conditions:

Forefoot Conditions
Rearfoot Conditions
Lower Leg Pain
Knee Pain
Back Pain


Hallux Valgus / Bunion

These two conditions are commonly experienced together. The bony prominence (bunion) is a portion of your large toe bone (metatarsal) as it moves outward. Pain is commonly experienced when footwear causes excessive pressure on the bunion.


Metatarsalgia is a broad term describing a region of pain, rather than a specific diagnosis. The dropping of our distal transverse arch often causes pain in the forefoot. When this arch drops, the bones of our toes become closer to the ground, therefore making them more susceptible to stresses as we walk.

There are small nerves than run between each of our toes. When the bones drop closer to the ground, they also increase the likelihood of nerve compression. This can create unwanted symptoms: burning, tingling, numbness to name a few.

Additional Forefoot Conditions:

Lesser toe deformities, sesamoiditis, 1st MTP joint osteoarthritis, Morton’s Neuroma.

Common Midfoot Conditions: Midtarsal stress fractures, osteoarthritis of midtarsal joints, plantar fibramatosis, Freiberg’s disease.


Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is the most commonly treated condition of the rearfoot. This band of tissue runs along the bottom of our foot, starting at the heel, and inserting into the bones of our toes. Irritation and/or microtrauma can develop into small micro tears along the tissue.

For the best symptomatic relief, KAL Orthoses has developed a researched based treatment program, provided to each patient experiencing this condition.

Additional Rearfoot Conditions: Subtalar joint osteoarthritis, Severe’s disease.


Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS)

MTSS most commonly results in pain on the lower inside portion of your shin. Pain is caused from an irritation to the tissues under two possible muscles: tibialis posterior or soleus. Heat can be touched around the area, as blood flow rushes to aid healing of these small micro-tears.

There are many different causes of MTSS. Poor shock absorption and poor gait mechanics are common stresses to lower limb musculature. Orthoses can often provide relief by resolving these underlying causes.

Compartment Syndrome

Compartment syndrome occurs when the pressure within the compartment exceeds it’s tolerance levels. This condition is mostly found in active individuals, where exertional activity continues to demand blood uptake within the stressed compartment. Orthoses can decrease the muscular demands, thus decreasing the excess blood pressurizing the compartment walls.

Additional Lower Leg Conditions: tibialis posterior and tibialis anterior tendinitis/tendinopathy, achilles tendinitis/ruptures

Additional Upper Leg Conditions: IT Band Friction Syndrome, Hip Pain (bursitis, osteoarthritis, leg length discrepancy)


Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS)

PFPS involves pain around the patella region, where symptoms are most often associated with activity. Pain develops when your patella is not adequately tracking the knee joint.

There are many causes to PFPS. Imbalances or tightness in the quadriceps musculature, lack of shock absorption and abnormal rotation of a lower limb are among the most common predisposing factors to PFPS. The goal of pedorthic treatment is to increase proper alignment of the leg, and enhance proper tracking of the patella.

Meniscus and Ligament Injuries

These types of injuries are fairly common among athletes. If lower limb mechanics are preventing adequate healing, orthoses are often used as a tool to help you return to your normal activities.

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the Knee

OA can present itself in the medial (inside) compartment or lateral (outside) compartment of the knee (can also present itself bilaterally). Degeneration can occur in these compartments due to injury or everyday wear and tear to the knee joint. Pedorthic treatment is geared towards increasing the joint space in the affected compartment, and consequently decreasing the painful bone on bone friction.

Note: KAL Orthoses specializes in the treatment of medial knee osteoarthritis. The medial compartment is the most commonly affected compartment of the knee. Kelly Levac, founder of KAL Orthoses, was a guest speaker on this topic at the 1st annual North American Pedorthic Congress in November 2010.


Back pain is very multifactoral in nature. In other words, there are often many cofounding variables that will affect a patient’s back pain. In cases where patient’s mechanics are evidently placing stress on the lower back, orthoses can often alleviate a percentage of the patient’s discomfort.



The most commonly treated types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid. The pedorthic treatment for arthritis varies according to patient’s symptoms. Custom orthoses can either correct the biomechanical factors increasing arthritic symptoms, or, can accommodate the arthritic foot when joints are rigid and inflexible. Ensuring patients are in appropriate footwear is key to treatment success.


Patient’s suffering from diabetes can benefit greatly from custom orthoses. These patients are treated similarly to arthritic conditions, however, orthotic materials are chosen with extra caution. If patients are experiencing neuropathy, extra time is dedicated towards diabetes education. Personal hygiene, proper socks and appropriate footwear are all necessary in the prevention of ulceration.

Additional Diseases/Conditions: Gouty arthritis, Psoriatic arthritis, Charcot Marie Toothe, Parkinson’s, Stroke patients

Note: Many conditions not listed can benefit from pedorthic care, only a select few are listed here. Please speak to your pedorthist for additional information.